CHORD FORMULAS OF KEYBOARD OR CASHIO

CHORD FORMULAS ©
The basic premise of "Chord Formulas" is that there is, in certain terms, a recipe
of how to construct a chord, any chord. This recipe is called the chord formula. With
this formula you can unerringly construct that chord starting with any root note (tonic)
you wish. Readers of Film Score Rundowns may find this technique useful when
identifying chords on their own.

Using a keyboard or simply a picture of one, you can count the steps given in a
formula. For example, the chord formula for the basic major triad is 5-4. If you begin,
say, with the C note as the root note, count up chromatically (half-steps or semi-tones)
five steps starting with that root note as the "1" count or step. In this case, C to E equals
five steps. To elaborate, C to C# [or Db enharmonically] are 2 steps. C to D are
composed of thee steps (C-C#-D or C-Db-D). C to D# [or Eb enharmonically] are
composed of four steps (C-C#-D-D# or, if you prefer, C-Db-D-Eb). Then, starting with
that E note where you ended up with in the first half (.5.) of the 5-4 formula, you count
up four steps to G (E-F-F#-G). Hence you get C-E-G or the simple root position triad in
C major. A partial Chord Formulas List is given starting on page 9.

SCALES
The basis of chord formulas formation is scales (from the Latin, scala, meaning
"ladder"). A scale represents a series of tones orderly arranged in succession within a
certain contextual range (normally an octave in Western music).
The two basic ways of classifying scales is the Diatonic method and the
Chromatic method. The Diatonic scale of eight notes consists of whole-steps and half-
steps arranged in alphabetical order, normally ascending from the root position. The
Chromatic scale of 13 semi-tones is simply the succession of half-steps only. Since
Western or modern music is based on the Diatonic scale, we focus on that.

Major Scale - Formula: 3-3-2-3-3-3-2

C-D-E-F-G-A-B
C#-D#-E#-F#-G#-A#-B#-C#
Db-Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb-C-Db
D-E-F#-G-A-B-C#-D
Eb-F-G-Ab-Bb-C-D-Eb
E-F#-G#-A-B-C#=D#-E
F-G-A-Bb-C-D-E-F
F#-G#-A#-B-C#-D#-E#-F#
Gb-Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb-F-Gb
Ab-Bb-C-Db-Eb-F-G-Ab
A-B-C#-D-E-F#-G#-A
Bb-C-D-Eb-F-G-A-Bb
B-C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A#-B

2

Minor Scale - Formula: 3-2-3-3-2-3-3

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-A
A#-B#-C#-D#-E#-F#-G#-A#
Bb-C-Db-Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb
B-C#-D-E-F#-G-A-B
C-D-Eb-F-G-Ab-Bb-C
C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A-B-C#
D-E-F-G-A-Bb-C-D
D#-E#-F#-G#-A#-B-C#-D#
Eb-F-Gb-Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb
E-F#-G-A-B-C-D-E
F-G-Ab-Bb-C-Db-Eb-F
F#-G#-A-B-C#-D-E-F#
G-A-Bb-C-D-Eb-F-G
G#-A#-B-C#-D#-E-F#-G#

The above are the two kinds or modes of diatonic scales. The trait of the major
scale is that the half steps occur between the third and the fourth notes (or degrees, often
designated as Roman numerals, I thru VIII), and between the seventh and eight. See
below:
Major (Ionian) Scale Mode:

I C Tonic
II D Supertonic
III E Mediant
IV F Subdominant
V G Dominant
VI A Submediant
VII B Leading Tone
VIII C Octave

Whole steps are between C-D, D-E. Half step is between E-F. Whole steps are
between F-G, G-A, A-B. Half step is between B-C.

The trait of the minor scale is that the half steps occur between
The second and third notes, and between the fifth and sixth notes.
Minor (Aeolian) Scale Mode:

I A Tonic
II B Supertonic
III C Mediant
IV D Subdominant
V E Dominant
VI F Submediant
3
VII G Leading Tone
VIII A Octave

Whole step are between A-B. Half step is between B-C. Etc.

As a shorthand convenience in musical compositions, instead of laboriously
writing out each flat or sharp needed in a particular modal key, the KEY SIGNATURE
was devised. Here the required accidentals are assembled in a standard pattern that is
placed at the beginning of the music staff of each page immediately after the clef sign. A
consistent pattern is devised by ascending fifths and descending fifths, as given below:
Major Keys

C# 7 sharps F#-C#-G#-D#-A#-E#-B#
F# 6 sharps F#-C#-G#-D#-A#-E#
B 5 sharps F#-C#-G#-D#-A#
E 4 sharps F#-C#-G#-D#
A 3 sharps F#-C#-G#
D 2 sharps F#-C#
G 1 sharp F#

C

F 1 flat Bb
Bb 2 flats Bb-Eb
Eb 3 flats Bb-Eb-Ab
Ab 4 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db
Db 5 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb
Gb 6 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb-Cb
Cb 7 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb-Cb-Fb

Minor keys

A# 7 sharps F#-C#-G#-D#-A#-E#-B#
D# 6 sharps F#=C#-G#-D#-A#-E#
G# 5 sharps F#-C#-G#-D#-A#
C# 4 sharps F#-C#-G#-D#
F# 3 sharps F#-C#-G#
B 2 sharps F#-C#
E 1 sharp F#

A

D 1 flat Bb
G 2 flats Bb-Eb
C 3 flats Bb-Eb-Ab
F 4 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db
Bb 5 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb
Eb 6 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb-Cb
Ab 7 flats Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb-C-Fb

INTERVALS
The distance between any two notes of a scale is called an interval. The smallest
interval in western music is the half-step (semi-tone). A half step between two notes
having different letter names (Ex., C to D-flat, E to F) is a diatonic half-step. A half-step
between two notes having the same letter name (Ex., C to C-sharp) is a chromatic half-
step.
The size of an interval is determined diatonically by counting the letter name
upward from the root note. Ex., C-D = 2nd; C-E = 3rd; C-F = 4th; C-G = 5th, etc.
The quality of an interval is perfect, major, minor, augmented or diminished.
Unisons, 4ths, 5ths and octaves are called perfect intervals, but any half-tone alteration
makes them diminished (if lowered a half-step) or augmented (if raised a half-step).
2nds, 3rds, 6ths, 7ths are a separate group of intervals that can be major, minor,
diminished or augmented intervals. Examples of intervals of the A and C major and
minor scales are as follows:
A major C major Interval Name Half-Steps
A to B C to D major 2nd 2
A to D C to F perfect 4th 5
A to E C to G perfect 5th 7
A to G# C to B major 7th 11

C minor A minor Interval Name Half-Steps
C to Eb A to C minor 3rd 3
C to Bb A to G minor 7th 10
To determine the number of half-steps from a chord formula number, simply
subtract 1 from the chord formula number.
Half-Steps Chord Formula Steps Diatonic Interval name
1 2 minor 2nd
2 3 major 2nd
3 4 minor 3rd
4 5 major 3rd
5 6 perfect 5th
6 7 dim 5th/aug 4th
7 8 perfect 5th
8 9 minor 6th
9 10 major 6th
10 11 (Dom)7th
11 12 major 7th
12 13 octave
5
So, as examples, the interval between C to C (itself) is P1 or unison
C-C# = Aug 1
C-Db = min 2nd
C-D = maj 2nd
C-D# =Aug 2nd
C-Eb = min 3rd (though enharmonically the same sound)
C-E = maj 3rd
C-E# = Aug 3rd
C-Fb = dim 4th
C-F = P4 (Perfect 4th interval)
C-F# = Aug 4th (tritone)
C-Gb = dim 5th (tritone)
C-G = P5
C-G# = A5
C-Ab = m6
C-A = M6
C-A# = A6
C-Bb = m7
C-B = M7
C-B# = A7
C-Cb = d8

Other examples
Cb-C = A1
Cb- C# = AA1 (double augmented unison)
Cb-Db = m2
Cb- D# = AA2
E#-Fb = dd2double diminished
E#-F = d2 (not unison)
B-Cb = d2 (not unison)
B-C = m2
B-C# = M2
B-Db = d3
B-Bb = d8

CHORDS

While the combination of two notes is an interval, the combination of three or
more notes is a chord. The basic chord is a triad, a three-tone sound consisting of two
intervals of thirds, normally. The two kinds of thirds are major & minor, and there are
four permutations:

Major-minor = major triad (Ex. C-E-G)
minor-Major = minor triad (Ex. C-Eb-G)
minor-minor = diminished triad (Ex. C-Eb-Gb)
6
Major-major = augmented triad (Ex. C-E-G#)

Both the major and minor triads have a perfect 5th between the root note and the
5th (Ex. C to G). The difference between them lies in the fact that, in the minor chord, the
third is always lowered or flatted one half-step (Ex., Eb in the C minor triad). In the
diminished triad, the 5th is also lowered one half-step # in the C aug triad). In certain
terms, the diminished chord is a special kind of minor chord, while the augmented chord
is a special kind of major chord--their 5ths either lowered or raised a half-step
respectively.

In this analysis, the chord formula shows the diatonic intervals of a given chord.
For example, the 5-4 formula for a basic major triad shows two intervals separated by a
dash: the major third (the "5" in the formula) or C to E in the C maj triad, and the minor
third (the "4" in the formula) or E to G. The 5-4-4 formula in the Dominant 7 (D 7)
chord shows three intervals: using C as the root, we have a major third between C to E, a
minor third between E to G, and another minor third between G to Bb.
The 5-4-5 formula in the Major 7 chord also has three intervals: major third from
C-E, minor third from E-G, and a major third from G-B.
The chord formula approach also very importantly uses the proper letter/note
sequence. The rule of standard music is that the correct name for a note a whole tone
above a given letter/note must be the next letter. For example, a 6th note is a whole tone
above a 5th, so in A major 6, the proper letter sequence is A-C#-E-F#, not A-C#-E-Gb
(the 6th note must be identified as F#, not Gb).
The proper letter sequence (except for suspended and added 4th chords) is as
follows:

C-E-G-B-D-F-A (Or, for better ease of memory, starting with F:)
F-A-C-E-G-B-D
Notice that the sequence is separated by thirds since most chords in traditional
Western harmony are basically built upon third (tertian) intervals (quartal harmony, say,
also exists of course). Even a perfect 5th is built upon two intervals of thirds (minor-
Major or Major-minor). An example of an exception is the suspended chord (6-3
formula) in which the suspended note "suspends" or replaces the third note in relation to
the root note.

In terms of proper letter sequencing of chords, a further example is the major b
(flat) 5th (5-3 formula) or major chord flat the 5th. You may think that (using the F as the
tonic, say) the letter sequence is F-A-B. However, that is incorrect because the nature of
the chord is a major with a flatted fifth. The fifth of the F root note is C, not B. Hence the
proper letter pattern is F-A-Cb. Cb and B are enharmonic notes, sounding the same in
isolation but bearing different letter names, depending on the chord context. For
example, D# and Eb in relation to C are enharmonically the same, but the former is an
augmented second interval, while the latter is a major third.

As given, the basic chord is a triad (three tones). A chord with an added third to a
triad is called a seventh. In the table below are five of the most common 7th chords:
7

Dom 7 7 Major-minor 7th maj-min-min
Maj 7 M7 Major-Major 7th maj-min-maj
min 7 m7 minor-minor 7th min-maj-min
minMaj 7 m +7 minor-Major 7th min-maj-maj
min 7 b 5 dm7 half-diminished 7th min-min-maj
dim 7 dd7 diminished 7th min-min-min

Adding a third (Ex. a minor 3rd to Maj 7; a major 3rd to Dom 7) to a seventh
chord creates the ninth chord. Adding a minor 3rd to a 9thcreates an 11th chord. And
adding a major 3rd to an 11th creates a 13th. Some of these compound chords are called
poly-chords. For example, the A Dom 11th (5-4-4-5-4 formula) can be seen as the A
major triad with a G major triad on top of it. The D min 11th (4-5-4-5-4) can be seen as
the D min triad with the C maj triad on top.
Keeping to tradition, the 11th note in a 13th chord is omitted. Even so, a 13th
chord with its six notes (Ex. C-E-G-B-D-A) will look very imposing. In performed
music, all the notes of such a chord would usually not be played together. Otherwise the
chord would sound too muddied, too close together. Proper voicing means rearranging
the placement of some of the notes from their root position and omitting others. In an
11th chord, the 9th and even the 5th are omitted. In a 9th chord, the 7th is left out many
times, with the 9th sounding below the root note. Even the basic maj 7th in its root
position is often better voiced (sounds more interesting) by bringing down the 7th below
the root while leaving all the other notes the same.

INVERSIONS

Most music, in fact, is not played in the basic chord placement of the root note as
the lowest or bottom note. Instead, chords are often "inverted." Inversions are the
rearrangement of the intervals of a chord. A triad with the tonic as the lowest note is the
root position. A triad with the third as the lowest note is the first inversion (ex. E-G-C in
the C maj triad). The 5th as the bottom note is the second inversion (ex. G-C-E).
Using the D min 7 as another example:
D/F/A/C = Root position
F/A/C/D = 1st inversion
A/C/D/F = 2nd inv
C/D/F/A = 3rd inv

Some chords, when inverted, become entirely different chords in isolation. Ex., if
the A in the C maj 6 chord (C/E/G/A) is placed below the root C note (C maj 6 third inv),
the chord structurally becomes an A minor 7th (A/C/E/G) in its root position. The maj 6
and minor 7th are "equivalent" in that sense. Normally, however, the nature of a chord is
determined (in most or many cases) by the low note of a bass instrument in a
composition.

8
SHARED CHORD NOTES

While chord formulas are unerringly accurate in constructing chords, it
is not necessarily easy to identify chords intended by a composer in a complex
composition. Harmony is a moving, ever-changing or modulating experience dependent
on the context of adjacent chords and shared notes of a previous chord. Besides Circle of
Fifths modulation, parallel (chromatic) triads and sevenths, and other devices, chords can
modulate into other chords with shared notes.
In major triads:
C : C maj (C/E/G), Ab maj (Ab/C/Eb), F maj (F/A/C)
D : D maj (D/F#/A), G maj (G/B/D), Bb maj (Bb/D/F)
E : E maj (E/G#/B), A maj (A/C#/E), C maj (C/E/G)
F : F maj (F/A/C), Db maj (Db/F/Ab), Bb maj (Bb/D/F)
G : G maj (G/B/D), C maj (C/E/G), Eb maj (Eb/G/Bb)
A : A maj (A/C#/E), D maj (D/F#/A), F maj (F/A/C)
B : B maj (B/D#/F#), E maj (E/G#/B), G maj (G/B/D)

C# : C# maj (C#/E#/G#), F# maj (F#/A#/C#), A maj (A/C#/E)
D# : D# maj (D#/Fx/A#), B maj (B/D#/F#)
F# : F# maj, D maj, B maj
G# : G# maj (G#/B#/D#), C# maj (C#/E#/G#), E maj (E/G#/B)
A# : A# maj (A#/Cx/E#), F# maj (F#/A#/C#)

Db : Db maj (Db/F/Ab), Gb maj (Gb/Bb/Db)
Eb : Eb maj (Eb/G/Bb), Ab maj (Ab/C/Eb), Cb maj (Cb/Eb/Gb)
Gb : Gb maj, Cb maj
Ab : Ab maj, Db maj
Bb : Bb maj, Eb maj, Gb maj

In minor triads:
C : C min (C/Eb/G), F min (F/Ab/C), A min (A/C/E)
D : D min (D/F/A), G min (G/Bb/D), B min (B/D/F#)
E : E min (E/G/B), C# min (C#/E/G#), A min (A/C/E)
F : F min (F/Ab/C), Bb min (Bb/Db/F), D min (D/F/A)
G : G min, C min, E min
A : A min (A/C/E), D min (D/F/A), F# min (F#/A/C#)
B : B min (B/D/F#), E min (E/G/B), G# min (G#/B/D#)

C# : C# min (C#/E/G#), F# min (F#/A/C#), A# min (A#/C#/E#)
D# : D# min, G# min
F# : F# min, B min, D# min
G# : G# min, C# min
A# : A# min, D# min

Db : Db min, Bb min
Eb : Eb min, C min, Ab min
9
Gb : Gb min, Bb min
Ab: Ab min, F min
Bb : Bb min, Eb min, G min

Common Sevenths (examples):
C : C min Maj 7 (C/Eb/G/B), C maj 7, C Dom 7, C min 7, C 7, C dim 7, C half-dim 7,
Db maj7 (Db/F/Ab/C), D min 7 (D/F/A/C), D Dom7 (D/F#/A/C), D# dim 7, D half-dim 7
(D/F/Ab/C), F minMaj 7, F maj 7, F min 7, F Dom7 (F/A/C/Eb), F# dim 7, F# half-dim
7, A minMaj 7 (A/C/E/G#), Ab maj 7 (Ab/C/Eb/G), A min 7 (A/C/E/G), Ab Dom7, A
dim7 (A/C/Eb/Gb), A half -dim 7 (A/C/Eb/G).
Etc etc.

-Diminished chords were often used or favored in the "Romantic. period of music
history. I discuss the half-diminished 7th chords at length (tied to Herrmann works) in my
online paper, .Half-Diminished 7th: The Herrmann Chord.. Half-diminished 7ths are
often also used in jazz compositions as alternate chords to standard minor chords. Often
such chords are used to convey foreboding, tragic, dangerous, melodramatic situations,
darkness and dread, as well as deep emotional yearnings. Herrmann often used these
chords with the minor chords to convey poignant, sad, introspective, inner qualities.

-Augmented chords are often used as variations of the 7th chord, found in gospel
music, say, or used to convey feelings of solitude, isolation or spaciness..

-The slash ( / ) symbol within a chord name shows that the slash is added to the
chord. It does not replace any note as the "Sus" does when it replaces the third degree of a
particular chord. If the interval degree after the slash is lower than the nature of the
chord, the added note goes within the chord structure (Ex. see maj 7/6). If the interval
degree after the slash is higher, the added note is placed above the chord structure (Ex.,
see maj/9 in which the 9th note is added without any intermediary 7th note).

Chord Formulas List (partial)
Name Formula

#1) major (maj) = 5-4
#2) maj 6 = 5-4-3
#3) maj 7 = 5-4-5
#4) maj 9 = 5-4-5-4
#5) maj 11 = 5-4-5-4-4
#6) maj 13 = 5-4-5-4-8
#7) maj b5 = 5-3
#8) maj 7b5 = 5-3-6
#9) maj 9b5 = 5-3-6-4
#10) maj 11b5 = 5-3-6-4-4
#11) maj 13 b5 = 5-3-6-4-8
#12) Augmented (aug) = 5-5
#13) maj 7#5 = 5-5-4
10
#14) maj 9 #5 = 5-5-4-4
#15) maj 11 #5 = 5-5-4-4-4
#16) maj 13 #5 = 5-5-4-4-8
#17) maj/9 = 5-4-8
#18) maj 6/9 = 5-4-3-6
#19) maj 7/6 = 5-4-3-3
#20) maj 7/11 = 5-4-5-7
#21) maj 11/13 = 5-4-5-4-4-5
#22) maj 7b9 = 5-4-5-3
#23) maj 11b9 = 5-4-5-3-5
#24) maj 7#9 = 5-4-5-5
#26) maj 11 #9 = 5-4-5-5-3
#28) maj 9#11 = 5-4-5-4-5
#30) maj 7b5#9 = 5-3-6-5

#40) minor (min) = 4-5
#41) min6 = 4-5-3
#42) min7 = 4-5-4
#43) min9 = 4-5-4-5
#44) min 11 = 4-5-4-5-4
#45) min 13 = 4-5-4-5-8
#46) diminished (dim) = 4-4
#47) dim 6 = 4-4-4
#48) dim 7 = 4-4-4
#49) minor Major 7 = 4-5-5
#50) min Maj 9 = 4-5-5-4
#51) min Maj 11 = 4-5-5-4-4
#52) min 7 b5 (half-dim) = 4-4-5
#54) min9 b5 = 4-4-5-5
#55) min 11b5 = 4-4-5-5-4
#56) min 13 b 5 = 4-4-5-5-8
#57) min 7#5 = 4-6-3
#58) min 9#5 = 4-6-3-5
#59) min 11#5 = 4-6-3-5-4
#61) min/9 = 4-5-8
#62) min 6/9 = 4-5-3-6
#63) min 7/6 = 4-5-3-2
#64) min 7/11 = 4-5-4-8
#66) min 7b 9 = 4-5-4-4
#69) min 7#9 = 4-5-4-6

#84) Dominant 7 = 5-4-4
#85) Dom 9 = 5-4-4-5
#86) Dom 11 = 5-4-4-5-4
#87) Dom 13 = 5-4-4-5-8
#88) Dom 7b5 = 5-3-5
11
#89) Dom 9b5 = 5-3-5-5
#90) Dom 11b5 = 5-3-5-5-4
#92) Dom 7#5 = 5-5-3
#93) Dom 9#5 = 5-5-3-5
#96) Dom 7/6 = 5-4-3-2
#97) Dom 7/11 = 5-4-4-8
#99) Dom 7b9 = 5-4-4-4
#102) Dom 7#9 = 5-4-4-6

#115) Suspended 4 = 6-3
#116) Sus 6 = 6-3-3
#117) Sus 7 = 6-3-5
#118) Sus 9 = 6-3-5-4
#120) Sus 7b5 = 6-2-6
#123) Sus 7#5 = 6-4-4
#126) Sus/9 = 6-3-8
#127) Sus 6/9 = 6-3-3-6

#145) Maj/4 = 5-2-3
#146) maj 6/4 = 5-2-3-3
#147) maj 7/4 = 5-2-3-5
#156) maj/9/4 = 5-2-3-8

#175) min/4 = 4-3-3
#176) min 6/4 = 4-3-3-3
#177) min 7/4 = 4-3-3-4

#209) dim Sus = 6-2
#210) dim 6 Sus = 6-2-4
#211) dim 7 Sus = 6-2-4
#212) aug Sus = 6-4
#213) Dom 7 Sus = 6-3-4

#238) Dom 7/4 = 5-2-3-5
#244) Aug/4 = 5-2-4

Illustration examples:

Chord No. 1: Major
Chord Formula: 5-4

C-E-G
C#-E#-G#
Db-F-Ab
D-F#-A
Eb-G-Bb
12
E-G#-B
F-A-C
F#-A#-C#
Gb-Bb-Db
G-B-D
Ab-C-Eb
A-C#-E
Bb-D-F
B-D#-F#
Cb-Eb-Gb

Chord No. 2 : maj 6
Chord Formula : 5-4-3

C-E-G-A
C#-E#-G#-A#
Db-F-Ab-Bb
D-F#-A-B
Eb-G-Bb-C
E-G#-B-C#
F-A-C-D
F#-A#-C#-D#
Gb-Bb-Db-Eb
G-B-D-E
Ab-C#-E-F#
Bb-D-F-G
B-D#-F#-G#
Cb-Eb-Gb-Ab

Chord No. 3: maj 7
Chord Formula: 5-4-5

C-E-G-B
C#-E#-G#-B#
Db-F-Ab-C
D-F#-A-C#
Eb-G-Bb-D
F-A-C-E
F#-A#-C#-E#
Gb-Bb-Db-F
G-B-D-F#
Ab-C-Eb-G
A-C#-E-G#
Bb-D-F-A
B-D#-F#-A#
Cb-Eb-Gb-Bb
13

Chord No. 4 : maj 9
Chord Formula: 5-4-5-4

C-E-G-B-D
C#-E#-G#-B#-D#
Db-F-Ab-C-Eb
D-F#-Ab-C#-E
Eb-G-Bb-D-F
E-G#-B-D#-F#
F-A-C-E-G
F#-A#-C#-E#-G#
Gb-Bb-Db-F-Ab
G-B-D-F#-A
Ab-C#-E-G#-B
Bb-D-F-A-C
B-D#-F#-A#-C#
Cb-Eb-Gb-Bb-Db

Chord No. 12: augmented (aug)
Chord Formula: 5-5

C-E-G#
C#-E#-Gx
Db-F-A
D-F#-A#
Eb-G-B
E-G#-B#
F-A-C#
F#-A#-Cx
Gb-Bb-D
G-B-D#
Ab-C-E
A-C#-E#
Bb-D-F#
B-D#-Fx
Cb-Eb-G

Chord No. 17 : maj/9
Chord Formula: 5-4-8

C-E-G-D
C#-E#-G#-D#
Db-F-Ab-Eb
D-F#-A-E
Eb-G-Bb-F
14
E-G#-B-F#
F-A-C-G
F#-A#-C#-G#
Gb-Bb-Db-Ab
G-B-D-A
Ab-C-Eb-Bb
A-C#-E-B
Bb-D-F-C
B-D#-F#-C#
Cb-Eb-Gb-Db

Chord No. 20 : maj 7/11
Chord Formula : 5-4-5-7

C-E-G-B-F
C#-E#-G#-B#-F#
Db-F-Ab-C-Gb
D-F#-A-C#-G
Eb-G-Bb-D-Ab
E-G#-B-D#-A
F-A-C-E-Bb
F#-A#-C#-E#-B
Gb-Bb-Db-F-Cb
G-B-D-F#-C
Ab-C-Eb-G-Db
A-C#-E-G#-D
Bb-D-F-A-Eb
B-D#-F#-A#-E
Cb-Eb-Gb-Bb-Fb

Chord No. 40: minor
Chord Formula: 4-5

C-Eb-G
C#-E-G#
D-F-A
D#-F#-A#
Eb-Gb-Bb
E-G-B
F-Ab-C
F#-A-C#
G-Bb-D
G#-B-D#
Ab-Cb-Eb
A-C-E
A#-C#-E#
15
Bb-Db-F
B-D-F#

Chord No. 42: min 7
Chord Formula: 4-5-4

C-Eb-G-Bb
C#-#-G#-B
D-F-A-C
D#-F#-A#-C#
Eb-Gb-Bb-Db
E-G-B-D
F-Ab-C-Eb
F#-A-C#-E
G-Bb-D-F
G#-B-D#-F#
Ab-Cb-Eb-Gb
A-C-E-G
A#-C#-E#-G#
Bb-Db-F-Ab
B-D-F#-A

Chord No. 45 : min 13
Chord Formula : 4-5-4-5-8

C-Eb-G-Bb-D-A
C#-E-G#-B-D#-A#
D-F-A-C-E-B
D#-F#-A#-C#-E#-B#
Eb-Gb-Bb-Db-F-C
E-G-B-D-F#-C#
F-Ab-C-Eb-G-D
F#-A-C#-E-G#-D#
G-Bb-D-F-A-E
G#-B-D#-F#-A#-E#
Ab-Cb-Eb-Gb-Bb-F
A-C-E-G-B-F#
A#-C#-E#-G#-B#-Fx
Bb-Db-F-Ab-C-G
B-D-F#-A-C#-G#

Chord No. 48: diminished 7
Chord Formula: 4-4-4

C-Eb-Gb-Bbb
C#-E-G-Bb
16
D-F-Ab-Cb
D#-F#-A-C
Eb-Gb-Bbb-Dbb
E-G-Bb-Db
F-Ab-Cb-Ebb
F#-A-C-Eb
G-Bb-Db-Fb
G#-B-D-F
Ab-Cb-Ebb-Gbb
A-C-Eb-Gb
A#-C#-E-G
Bb-Db-Fb-Abb
B-D-F-Ab

Chord No. 49: min Maj 7
Chord Formula: 4-5-5

C-Eb-G-B
C#-E-G#-B#
D-F-A-C#
D#-F#-A#-Cx
Eb-Gb-Bb-D
E-G-B-D#
F-Ab-C-E
F#-A-C#-E#
G-Bb-D-F#
G#-B-D#-Fx
Ab-Cb-Eb-G
A-C-E-G#
Bb-Db-F-A
B-D-F#-A#

Chord No. 53: min 7 b 5 (half-diminished 7th)

Chord Formula: 4-4-5

C-Eb-Gb-Bb
C#-E-G-B
D-F-Ab-C
D#-F#-A-C#
Eb-Gb-Bbb-Db
E-G-Bb-D
F-Ab-Cb-Eb
F#-A-C-E
G-Bb-Db-F
G#-B-D-F#
17
Ab-Cb-Ebb-Gb
A-C-Eb-G
A#-C#-E-G#
Bb-Db-Fb-Ab
B-D-F-A

Chord No. 61 : min/9
Chord Formula : 4-5-8

C-Eb-G-D
C#-E-G#-D#
D-F-A-E
D#-F#-A#-E#
Eb-Gb-Bb-F
E-G-B-F#
F-Ab-C-G
F#-A-C#-G#
G-Bb-D-A
G#-B-D#-A#
Ab-Cb-Eb-Bb
A-C-E-B
A#-C#-E#-B#
Bb-Db-F-C
B-D-F#-C#

Chord No. 84: Dominant 7
Chord Formula: 5-4-4

C-E-G-Bb
C#-E#-G#-B
Db-F-Ab-Cb
D-F#-A-C
D#-Fx-A#-C#
Eb-G-Bb-Db
E-G#-B-D
F-A-C-Eb
F#-A#-C#-E
Gb-Bb-Db-Fb
G-B-D-F
G#-B#-D#-F#
Ab-C-Eb-Gb
A-C#-E-G
A#-Cx-E#-G#
Bb-D-F-Ab
B-D#=F#-A

18
Chord No. 97 : Dom 7/11
Chord Formula : 5-4-4-8

C-E-G-Bb-F
C#-E#-G#-B-F#
Db-F-Ab-Cb-Gb
D-F#-A-C-G
D#-Fx-A#-C#-G#
Eb-G-Bb-Db-Ab
E-G#-B-D-A
F-A-C-Eb-Bb
F#-A#-C#-E-B
Gb-Bb-Db-Fb-Cb
G-B-D-F-C
G#-B#-D#-F#-C#
Ab-C-Eb-Gb-Db
A-C#-E-G-D
A#-Cx-E#-G#-D#
Bb-D-F-Ab-Eb
B-D#-F#-A-E

Chord No. 117: Suspended 7
Chord Formula: 6-3-5

C-F-G-B
C#-F#-G#-B#
Db-Gb-Ab-C
D-G-A-C#
D#-G#-A#-Cx
Eb-Ab-Bb-D
E-A-B-D#
F-Bb-C-E
F#-B-C#-E#
Gb-Cb-Db-F
G-C-D-F#
G#-C#-D#-Fx
Ab-Db-Eb-G
A-D-E-G#
A#-D#-E#-Gx
Bb-Eb-F-A
B-E-F#-A#
Cb-Fb-Gb-Bb

Chord No. 147: maj 7/4
Chord Formula: 5-2-3-5

19
C-E-F-G-B
D-F#-G-A-C#
Eb-G-Ab-Bb-D
E-G#-A-B-D#
F-A-Bb-C-E
F#-A#-B-C#-E#
Gb-Bb-Cb-Db-F
G-B-C-D-F#
Ab-C-Db-Eb-G
A-C#-D-E-G#
Bb-D-Eb-F-A
B-D#-E-F#-A#

Chord No. 211: dim Sus 7
Chord Formula 6-2-4

C-F-Gb-Bbb
C#-F#-G-Bb
D-G-Ab-Cb
D#-G#-A-C
Eb-Ab-Bbb-Dbb
E-A-Bb-Db
F-Bb-Cb-Ebb
F#-B-C-Eb
G-C-Db-Fb
G#-C#-D-F
A-D-Eb-Gb
A#-D#-E-G
Bb-Eb-Fb-Abb
B-E-F-Ab

Chord No. 175: min/4
Chord Formula: 4-3-3

C-Eb-F-G
C#-E-F#-G#
D-F-G-A
D#-F#-G#-A#
Eb-Gb-Ab-Bb
E-G-A-B
F-Ab-Bb-C
F#-A-B-C#
G-Bb-C-D
A-C-D-E
B-D-E-F#

20
Chord No. 238: Dom 7/4
Chord Formula: 5-2-3-4

C-E-F-G-Bb
C#-E#-F#-G#-B
Db-F-Gb-Ab-Cb
D-F#-G-A-C etc etc

Chord/Note Equivalences
Ex.:
#2 maj 6 = # 42 min 7
To illustrate, C maj 6(C-E-G-A) = A min 7(1st inversion)
Also: C min 7(C-Eb-G-Bb) = Eb maj 6(3rd inversion)

Ex. :
#41 min 6 = #53 (half-dim 7th).
To illustrate, E-G-B-C# (E min 6) = C#-E-G-B (C# half-dim 7th).

Ex.:
# 4 maj 9 = #146 maj 6/4
So, for example, C maj 9(C-E-G-B-D) = G maj 6/4(G-B-C-D-E)

INTERVAL TABLE
Symbols: A = Augmented; AA = double augmented; d = diminished;
dd = double diminished; M = Major; m = minor; P = Perfect
1 = unison; 2 = second; 3 = third..8 = octave




UPPER NOTE ..[Left Margin notes are Root Notes] ..........

Cb C C# Db D D# Eb E E# Fb F F#
Cb P1 A1 AA2 M2 A2 AA2 M3 A3 AA3 P4 A4 AA4
C d8 P1 A1 m2 M2 A2 m3 M3 A3 d4 P4 A4
C# dd8 d8 P1 d2 m2 M2 d3 m3 M3 dd4 d4 P4
Db m7 M7 A7 P1 A1 AA1 M2 A2 AA2 m3 M3 A3
D d7 m7 M7 d8 P1 A1 m2 M2 A2 d3 m3 M3
D# dd7 d7 m7 dd8 d8 P1 d2 m2 M2 dd3 d3 m3
Eb m6 M6 A6 m7 M7 A7 P1 A1 AA1 m2 M2 A2
E d6 m6 M6 d7 m7 M7 d8 P1 A1 d2 m2 M2
E# dd6 d6 m6 dd7 d7 m7 dd8 d8 P1 dd2 d2 m2
Fb P5 A5 AA5 M6 A6 AA6 M7 A7 AA7 P1 A1 AA1
F d5 P5 A5 m6 M6 A6 m7 M7 A7 d8 P1 A1
F# dd5 d5 P5 d6 m6 M6 d7 m7 M7 dd8 d8 P1
Gb P4 A4 AA4 P5 A5 AA5 M6 A6 AA6 m7 M7 A7
21
G d4 P4 A4 d5 P5 A5 m6 M6 A6 d7 m7 M7
G# dd4 d4 P4 dd5 d5 P5 d6 m6 M6 dd7 d7 m7
Ab m3 M3 A3 P4 A4 AA4 P5 A5 AA5 m6 M6 A6
A d3 m3 M3 d4 P4 A4 d5 P5 A5 d6 m6 M6
A# dd3 d3 m3 dd4 d4 P4 dd5 d5 P5 dd6 d6 m6
Bb m2 M2 A2 m3 M3 A3 P4 A4 AA4 d5 P5 A5
B d2 m2 M2 d3 m3 M3 d4 P4 A4 dd5 d5 P5






UPPER NOTE..[Left margin notes are Root Notes]....

Gb G G# Ab A A# Bb B B#
Cb P5 A5 AA5 M6 A6 AA6 M7 A7 AA7
C d5 P5 A5 m6 M6 A6 m7 M7 A7
C# dd5 d5 P5 d6 m6 M6 d7 m7 M7
Db P4 A4 AA4 P5 A5 AA5 M6 A6 AA6
D d4 P4 A4 d5 P5 A5 m6 M6 A6
D# dd4 d4 P4 dd5 d5 P5 d6 m6 M6
Eb m3 M3 A3 P4 A4 AA4 P5 A5 AA5
E d3 m3 M3 d4 P4 A4 d5 P5 A5
E# dd3 d3 m3 dd4 d4 P4 dd5 d5 P5
Fb M2 A2 AA2 M3 A3 AA3 A4 AA4 AAA4
F m2 M2 A2 m3 M3 A3 P4 A4 AA4
F# d2 m2 M2 d3 m3 M3 d4 P4 A4
Gb P1 A1 AA1 M2 A2 AA2 M3 A3 AA3
G d8 P1 A1 m2 M2 A2 m3 M3 A3
G# dd8 d8 P1 d2 m2 M2 d3 m3 M3
Ab M7 A7 AA7 P1 A1 AA1 M2 A2 AA2
A d7 m7 M7 d8 P1 A1 m2 M2 A2
A# dd7 d7 m7 dd8 d8 P1 d2 m2 M2
Bb m6 M6 A6 m7 M7 A7 P1 A1 AA1
B d6 m6 M6 d7 m7 M7 d8 P1 A1


22
TRANSPOSITION

For those readers unfamiliar with the technique of transposing, let.s briefly
discuss the practical aspects in case any reader wishes to easily convert a .C. concert
note/tone as it sounds to the written equivalent in a transposing instrument (such as the
Bb clarinet and trumpet, horn in .F,. etc) or to covert the written or transposed notes of a
transposing instrument to .C. concert pitch.
To begin this transposing guide, let.s start with familiar Bb transposing
instruments such as the Bb clarinet, bass clarinet, contra bass clarinet, soprano sax (major
2nd lower), tenor sax (maj 9th lower), and trumpet. The reason the Bb clarinet or trumpet
is called a .Bb. instrument is because the written C of the clarinet transposed on paper is
heard as Bb in concert pitch. Unless a written score specifically states it is a .C. score or
a .Concert. score (meaning it is written as it sounds), then you.ll need to transpose the
written notes of transposing instruments back to concert pitch if you wish to make sense
of the discrepancy of notes compared to, say, the violins. A trained musician does this
automatically, but most people with some knowledge of reading music need to catch or
remind themselves of the difference of notes as written for the transposing instruments.
When studying any Herrmann score, you certainly must understand that he wrote a
transposed score. So if he wrote a middle C (Line 1 or c.) note, he did not mean a
concert pitch .C. (what you hear) but Bb a major 2nd interval below.
Using the Chord Formula technique of counting steps, a major 2nd interval is 3
steps. To convert the written note of the Bb instrument to concert pitch, you descend or
go down three steps; to convert a concert pitch to the Bb clarinet (Bb trumpet, etc), you
ascend three steps. So when you see the written D of the Bb clarinet in, say, a Herrmann
score, you go down three steps starting with D (D-Db-C) and you end up with C (what
you actually hear in concert pitch).
The bass saxophone in Bb sounds two octaves an a major 2nd lower than written.
The bass clarinet in Bb sounds an octave and a major 2nd lower.
The following is a list of transposed Bb instrument notes converted to concert
pitch :
Written =Concert Pitch
C = Bb
C# = B
Db = Cb
D = C
D# = C#
Eb = Db
E = D
E# = D#
F = Eb
F# = E
Gb = Fb (enharmonic to E). Relatively rarely used (Fb maj 7th, etc)
G = F
G# = F#
Ab = Gb
A = G
23
A# = G#
Bb = Ab
B = A
Cb = Bbb (enharmonic to A). Rarely encountered.

Next we will focus on the .F. transposing instruments, horns and English horns
(Fr., cor anglais). The reason they are called .F. instruments is because the written C for
the horns, say, is heard as the .F. note/tone in concert pitch (8 steps or P5 interval
below). Conversely, to convert a concert pitch note to horns written, you need to go up 8
steps (again, starting with the note in question). So, to convert the written C note of the
horn to concert pitch, descend 8 steps: C-B-Bb-A-Ab-G-Gb-F. You end up with the F
tone actually heard.
The following is a list of F instrument notes as written converted to concert pitch:
Written Horn = Concert Pitch
Cb = Fb
C = F
C# = F#
Db = Gb
D = G
D# = G#
Eb = Ab
E = A
E# = A#
F = Bb
F# = B
Gb = Cb
G = C
G# = C#
Ab = Db
A = D
A# = D#
Bb = Eb
B = E

Next we will focus on Eb transposing instruments such as the contra alto Eb
clarinet and Eb (alto) saxophone, and Eb baritone Sax (sounding an octave and major 6th
lower). The reason they are called Eb instruments is because the written C on such
instruments sounds as the Eb tone/note a major 6th interval lower. To convert alto Sax
written to concert, descend 10 steps; to convert a concert pitch tone to alto sax written,
ascend 10 steps. So to properly ascertain the concert pitch equivalence of the written C
note, go down 10 steps: C-B-Bb-A-Ab-G-Gb-F-E-Eb. You end up with the Eb tone. The
same applies in practical usage for the baritone Sax, however it sounds another octave
lower (just, in similar principle, as the bass clarinet middle C written note would actually
sound an octave and major 2nd lower.a Bb tone a register lower than a clarinet).
There is also the soprano Eb clarinet that sounds a minor 3rd higher than written
so that the written C sounds a minor third or 4 steps higher (Eb).
24
The following is a list of Eb instrument (common usage now for the alto sax)
written notes converted to concert pitch:
Written Alto Sax = Concert Pitch
C = Eb
C# = E
Db = Fb
D = F
D# = F#
Eb = Gb
E = G
E# = G#
Fb = Abb
F = Ab
F# = A
Gb = Bbb
G = Bb
G# = B
Ab = Cb
A = C
A# = C#
Bb = Db
B = D
Next we focus on the .G. alto flute that Herrmann used several times. The reason
it is called a .G. instrument is because the written C for the alto flute sounds as the G
tone a perfect 4th interval below (6 steps below). Conversely, to convert a concert pitch
note to written alto flute, ascend 6 steps. So written C is converted 6 steps: C-B-Bb-A-
Ab-G, ending in the proper note sounded (G).
The following is a list of conversions:
Written Alto Flute = Concert Pitch.
Cb = Gb
C = G
C# = G#
Db = Ab
D = A
D# = A#
Eb = Bb
E = B
E# = B#
Fb = Cb
F = C
F# = C#
Gb = Db
G = D
G# = D#
Ab = Eb
A = E
A# = E#
Bb = F
B = F#

There is also the oboe d.amore in A. The reason it is called an .A. instrument is
because the written C for that instrument sounds a minor 3rd (4 steps) lower as note/tone
A. I do not believe Herrmann ever used this instrument, but I will check. The principal
transposing instruments that you need to consider are the common usage Bb instruments
such as the Bb clarinet/bass clarinet/C.B/ clarinet/trumpet, and the horns .in F. (the .F.
here does not mean shorthand for .French. horns!). Only in a few rare cases did
Herrmann not transpose, usually in his Early Works period (I believe one case was in
Citizen Kane but I need to recheck).